Counter-speech - which argues, disagrees or presents an opposing view – is a potentially important way to deal with extreme or offensive content online. It is fast, flexible and responsive, capable of dealing with extremism from anywhere, in any language and retains the principle of free and open public spaces for debate. However, it is also likely that it is not always as effective as it could be; and some types of counter-speech could potentially even be counter-productive. This second report sets out the summary findings of phase II of this project, examining how speech which challenges extreme Islamist narratives in the UK and France is produced and shared. Future reports in this series will cover counter-speech in other countries, including India and Indonesia.