Cyberhate describes various forms of online communication by hate groups with the purpose of attracting new members, building and strengthening group identity, coordinating group action, distributing propagandistic messages and indoctrination, provoque counter-reactions as part of propagandistic campaigns, and attack societal groups and individuals with hateful messages. A large segment of research under the label “cyberhate” has focused on racist and xenophobic groups (esp. white supremacist groups in the United States) and their use of e-mail, websites, blogs and social online networks. However, the general principles and functions of cyberhate can be identified in the online communication of other extremist groups as well, like religious extremists and terrorist groups with comparable supremacy, separatist or extermination ideologies. Typically, these groups portray themselves as being oppressed or endangered by a far more powerful, misguided, despicable or evil enemy, therefore allowing for unrestrained hate and extreme actions. The research in this field is multifaceted, with contributions from various disciplines, like communication studies, sociology, psychology and law studies.